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Industry Glossary
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Industry Glossaries:
 
Biotechnology
                 
 Assay
Category
 

 

Biotechnology
 Antibody
Category
 

A protein produced by certain types of white blood cells to deactivate foreign proteins.

 

Biotechnology
 Chemotherapy Drugs
Category
 

Cytotoxic drugs used to treat cancers.

 

Biotechnology
 Enzyme
Category
 

Protein that controls chemical reactions in the body.

 

Biotechnology
 Immunomodulator
Category
 

A drug that attempts to modify the immune system.

 

Biotechnology
 Macrophage
Category
 

A type of white blood cell that aids in the destruction of unwanted substances such as bacteria and dead cells.

 

Biotechnology
 Agonist
Category
 

A drug that promotes certain kinds of cellular activity by binding to a cell's receptor.

 

Biotechnology
 Antagonist
Category
 

A drug that prevents certain types of cellular reactions by blocking other substances from binding to a cell's receptor.

 

Biotechnology
 Orphan Drug
Category
 

A drug designed for the treatment of a rare disease afflicting a relatively small patient population with less than 200,000 cases.

 

Biotechnology
 Proteome
Category
 

The set of all proteins expressed by a genome.

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Biotechnology
 Recombinant DNA Technology
Category
 

The process of creating new DNA by combining components of DNA from different organisms. Usually, the new DNA is then incorporated into the therapeutic substances.

 

Biotechnology
 Tumor Necrosos Factors
Category
 

Rare proteins of the immune system that appear to destroy some kinds of tumor cells without affecting healthy cells.

 

Biotechnology
 Bioinformatics
Category
 

A system whereby biological information is collected, stored, accessed, and analyzed via computers and related electronic media.

 

Biotechnology
 Biologics
Category
 

Biologics (also called Biologic drugs) are medicinal preparations made from living organisms or their byproducts. Vaccines, antigens, serums, and plasmas are examples of biologics.

 

Biotechnology
 Clinical trials
Category
 

Pharmacology tests typically consisting of three stages in which experimental drugs are administered to humans to determine their safety and efficacy before being submitted for regulatory approval and ultimately commercialization.

 

Biotechnology
 Cytokines
Category
 

A family of proteins, including interferons, interleukins, and various growth factors, that bind to cellular receptors and are involved in the regulation of cell function.

 

Biotechnology
 Combination Therapy
Category
 

The use of two or more drugs that together have greater therapeutic power in treating illness and disease than either used alone.

 

Biotechnology
 Gene
Category
 

The basic determinant of heredity. Genes are chromosomal segments that direct the syntheses of proteins and conduct other molecular regulatory functions.

 

Biotechnology
 Gene Therapy
Category
 

The introduction of specific genes into a patient's body to replace defective ones or to suppress the action of a harmful gene.

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Biotechnology
 Genome
Category
 

The total complement of genetic material in a cell comprising the entire chromosomal set found in each nucleus of a given species.

 

Biotechnology
 Genomic
Category
 

The study of genes and their functions including mapping genes with genomes, identifying their nucleic acid structures, and investigating their function.

 

Biotechnology
 Human growth hormone (HGH)
Category
 

Pituitary hormone that stimulates the growth of long bones in prepubertal children.

 

Biotechnology
 Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
Category
 

a variation in he sequence of a gene due to change in a single nucleotide.

 

Biotechnology
 Amino acids
Category
 

Amino acids are molecules that are the building blocks of protein. There are 22 known, naturally occurring amino acids. These include nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary intake; and 13 non-essential amino acids that can be manufactured by the human body.

 

Biotechnology
 Antagonist
Category
 

A drug that prevents certain types of cellular reactions by blocking other substances from binding to a cell's receptor.

 

Biotechnology
 Biologics License Application
Category
 

A formal filing that biotechnology companies submit to the Food & Drug Administration for approval to market new biologics -based drugs. The application must contain clinical evidence of the compound's safety and efficacy.

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Biotechnology
 Bioavailability
Category
 

The percentage of a drug's active ingredient that reaches a patient's bloodstream and body tissue.

 

Biotechnology
 Autoimmune Disease
Category
 

A condition where the body produces antibodies against its own tissues.

 

Biotechnology
 Biochip/Microarray
Category
 

A miniaturized technology that can be used to run hundreds of tests simultaneously. The chips are etched with genetic proteomic information and used by researchers to analyze DNA sequences , a certain gene or protein expression, or detect genetic abnormalities known as mutations.

 

Biotechnology
 Breakthrough Drug
Category
 

A compound with a mechanism of action significantly superior than from existing drugs which represents a therapeutic advancement.

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Biotechnology
 Biosimilar
Category
 

A generic copy of a biological molecule , developed using modern biotechnology techniques. A biosimilar drug has similar activity and is structurally nearly identical to the biologic that it copies . But a biosimilar drug is not truly identical and normally requires a different regulatory process than pharmaceutical generic drugs.

 

Biotechnology
 Biogeneric
Category
 

See Biosimilar…

 

Biotechnology
 Chromosomes
Category
 

Microscopic threadlike components in the nucleus of a cell that carry hereditary information in the form of genes.

 

Biotechnology
 Clotting Factors
Category
 

Proteins involved in the normal clotting of blood.

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Biotechnology
 Colony Stimulating Factors
Category
 

Proteins responsible for controlling the production of white blood cells.

 

Biotechnology
 Gene Sequencing
Category
 

A scientific technique whereby DNA strands are decoded in order to quantify the exact order of DNA'S four nucleotides (A,C,G, &t). This allows scientists to analyze the sequence of strands and identify specific genes.

 

Biotechnology
 New Drug Application
Category
 

The formal filing that pharmaceutical companies submitted the FDA for approval to commercialize new chemical-based drugs. The drug application must contain clinical evidence of the compound's safety and efficacy.

 

Biotechnology
 Nucleic Acid Testing
Category
 

A method of biological screening and diagnostic testing that entails amplifying DNA and RNA to identify diseaeses and infections.

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Biotechnology
 Priority Review
Category
 

An investigational drug receiving this status from the FDA will be reviewed by the agency within six months of its BLA or NDA submission rather than the standard 10 months.

 

Biotechnology
 Ribosome Nucleic Acid Interference (RNAi)
Category
 

Ribosomal nucleic acid plays an important role in protein production by carrying instructions from a cell's genes (DNA) to its protein-making apparatus . RNAi is a method that can be used to prevent RNA from delivering its messages which silences the gene blocking production of the protein.

 

Biotechnology
 Pharmacokinectics
Category
 

The analysis of a drug's absorption and distribution in the body its chemical changes in the body, and how it is stored and eliminated in the human body.

 

Biotechnology
 Formulary
Category
 

A list of recommended medicines and dosages that health insurers are willing to cover. The drugs on formularies are grouped in categories which are defined by the extent to which payers want to encourage members to use those drugs over alternatives.

 

Biotechnology
 Recombinant Soluble Receptors
Category
 

Synthetic versions of proteins manufactured using recombinant DNA technology and designed to block unwanted binding of cytokines to their cellular receptors.

 

Biotechnology